Eugenio Montale (1896–1981) was born into a family of businessmen in Genoa on October 12, 1896. During World War I, he served as an infantry officer on the Austrian front. Originally Montale had trained to be an opera singer, but when his voice teacher died in 1923, he gave up singing and concentrated his efforts on writing. After his first book, Ossi di seppia (Cuttlefish Bones), appeared in 1925, Montale was received by critics as a profoundly original and experimental poet. His style mixed archaic words with scientific terms and idioms from the vernacular. He was dismissed from his directorship of the Gabinetto Vieusseux research library in 1938 for refusing to join the Fascist party. He withdrew from public life and began translating English writers such as Shakespeare, T. S. Eliot, Herman Melville, and Eugene O’Neill. In 1939, Le occasioni (The Occasions) appeared, his most innovative book, followed by La bufera e altro (The Storm and Other Things, 1956). It was this trio of books that won Montale the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1975 and established him as a founder of the hermeneutic school of Italian poetry. In addition to writing poems, Montale was also a prolific essayist, writer of stories and travel sketches, distinguished music critic, translator, and amateur painter. In recognition of his work, as well as his courageous opposition to fascism, he was made a lifetime member of the Italian Senate in 1967. After a long break from writing poetry, Montale published four collections during the last ten years of his life: Satura (Miscellany, 1971), Diario del ‘71 e del ‘72 (Diary of 1971 and 1972, 1973), Quaderno di quattro anni (Notebook of Four Years, 1977), and Altri versi e poesi disperse (Other and Uncollected Poems, 1981). Eugenio Montale died in Milan in 1981 at the age of 85.
Jonathan Williams Stella Vinitchi Radulescu Newton Smith Marilyn Kallet Emöke Z. B’Racz Bill Knott Jeffery Beam Thomas P. Feeny Michael Harper Emmanuel Moses Luke Hankins Al Maginnes Dede Wilson Sally Buckner Marilyn Hacker R. T. Smith William Matthews Quincy Troupe Kathryn Stripling Byer Jonathan Greene Phebe Davidson Simon Perchik Lyn Lifshin Ryan G. Van Cleave Gaylord Brewer Eugenio Montale Lee Ann Brown Welsh Review Spanish Keith Flynn Robert Bly Janice Moore Fuller Essay Thomas Rain Crowe Gearóid Mac Lochlainn J. W. Bonner Hungarian Patricia Smith Robert Creeley Ron Rash Patrick Bizzaro Rene Char Jack Hirschman Russian